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資訊網內容親和力準則 2.0

出自 MozTW Wiki


W3C 2004 年十一月 19 號工作草稿

這版本: 
http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-WCAG20-20041119/
最新版: 
http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
前一版: 
http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-WCAG20-20040730/
編輯: 
Ben Caldwell, Trace R&D Center
Wendy Chisholm, W3C
Gregg Vanderheiden, Trace R&D Center
Jason White, University of Melbourne

Copyright © 2004 W3C® (MIT, ERCIM, Keio), All Rights Reserved. W3C liability, trademark, document use rules apply.

版權所有。受 W3C 責任商標文件使用規則規範。

摘要

全球資訊網協會 (World Wide Web Consortium,W3C) 於 1999 年五月發布資訊網內容親和力準則 1.0 (WCAG 1.0) 的推薦書。本 2.0 版的工作草稿建在 WCAG 1.0 之上。它有同樣的目標:解釋如何讓資訊網內容 (Web content) 對有障礙的人士有親和力,與對親和力目標 level 做定義。本 2.0 版的工作草稿納入對 WCAG 1.0 的 feedback,主要著重在準則上。它嘗試著將準則應用更廣泛的技術,與使用更多元對象所能懂的字眼。

本文件的制定始末與狀態

本節描述本文檔發布時的狀況。其它的文檔也許會取代本文檔。當前已發佈的 W3C 文檔列表和最新版本的技術報告可以從位於 http://www.w3.org/TR/ 的 W3C 技術報告索引獲得。

This document is prepared by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (WCAG WG) to show how more generalized (less HTML-specific) WCAG guidelines might read. This draft is not yet based on consensus of the WCAG Working Group nor has it gone through W3C process. This Working Draft in no way supersedes WCAG 1.0.

Please refer to "Issue Tracking for WCAG 2.0 Working Draft" for a list of open issues related to this Working Draft. The "History of Changes to WCAG 2.0 Working Drafts" is also available.

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress. A list of current W3C Recommendations and other technical documents is available.

The Working Group welcomes comments on this document at public-comments-wcag20@w3.org. The archives for this list are publicly available. Archives of the WCAG WG mailing list discussions are also publicly available.

This document was produced under the 24 January 2002 CPP as amended by the W3C Patent Policy Transition Procedure. The Working Group maintains a public list of patent disclosures relevant to this document; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) with respect to this specification should disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

This document has been produced as part of the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). The goals of the WCAG WG are discussed in the Working Group charter. The WCAG WG is part of the WAI Technical Activity.

Introduction

目地

本文件 outlines 製作有親和力資訊網內容 (Web content)的設計原則。忽略這些原則可能使得有障礙人士完全不能用內容,或在使用上有很大的困難。而利用這些原則則讓資訊網內容 (Web content) 可用在多種資訊網驅動 (Web-enabled) 裝置,如電話、掌上裝置、kiosk、網路設備 (network appliance)。By making content accessible to a variety of devices, that content will also be accessible to people in a variety of situations.

本文件概述製作有親和力資訊網內容 (Web content) 的設計原則。若是這些原則被忽略,有障礙人士可能會完全無法使用這些內容,或者在使用上有很大的困難。這些原則被應用時,資訊網內容可以被用在各類的資訊網設備,如電話、掌上裝置、kiosk、網路 appliance 等。另外,讓內容可在不同裝置上用可以允許人們在不同情況下取得這些內容。

本文件的設計原則為很廣泛的概念,適用所有用資訊網的內容。它們不特定針對 HTML、XML、或任何其它技術。用這方法是為了讓設計原則可應用在多種的狀態與技術,包括尚未出現的。

本文件的設計原則代表了可用在所有基於資訊網內容的廣泛概念。它們並不特定針對 HTML、XML、或任何其它科技。採取這樣的方針是為了讓這些設計原則能應用在各種,包括目前不存在的情況與科技。

如何閱讀本文件

為了要讓準則更容易懂,還有協助讀者集中在他們所需要的地方上,這些準則以一組相關文件方式呈現。準則資訊分三個層次。

1 - Top layer - Overview of Design Principles, Guidelines, Success Criteria

1 - 頂層 - 設計原則、準則、達成要件的概略

頂層名為「資訊網內容親和力準則 2.0」(你現在在讀的文件)。這文件提供了:

  1. 一個介紹
  2. 四個主要的親和力原則(可察覺(perceivable)、可操作(operable)、可理解(understandable)與耐用(robust))
  3. The (non-technology-specific) guidelines (13 in total).
  4. Success criteria (normative), and definitions, benefits and examples (all non-normative) for each guideline
  5. An appendix containing definitions, references and other support information.

2 - Technology-specific Checklists

2 - 特定技術檢核表

除了 general guidelines 外,還有 will be a series of technology-specific checklist documents. These documents will provide information on what is required when using different technologies in order to meet the WCAG 2.0 Working Draft.

編按:These checklists do not yet exist. At the present time, it is not clear if the checklists will be normative or non-normative. If checklists are non-normative, it is easier to update them. If checklists are normative, changes made to them alter the definition of conformance. However, it may be necessary to make checklists normative in order for the guidelines to be testable

3 - Bottom layer - Technology-specific application information

3 - 頂層 - 特定技術的應用資訊

技巧文件 (Techniques Documents) 會有編碼範例、畫面擷取、於其它特定對某技術的資訊。這些文件將是非規範 (non-normative)。它們會包括不同的 strategies for meeting the requirements as well as the current preferred approaches, where they exist。例子有:

  • 一般技巧
  • 超文字標示語言(HTML)與可延伸超文字標示語言(XHTML)技巧
  • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) 技巧
  • 伺服機端(Server-side)腳本(撰寫)技巧
  • 客戶端腳本(撰寫)技巧
  • Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 技巧
  • Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) 技巧
  • 可延伸標示語言(XML)技巧

(Items above will become active links as the corresponding Working Drafts are published)

文章對象

本準則對許多不同對象的需要而編寫,對象可包括 policy makers、managers、建立資訊網內容 (Web content)的人、與寫程式碼的人。Every attempt has been made to make the document as readable and usable as possible while still retaining the accuracy and clarity needed in a technical specification. For first time users, the work of the Education and Outreach Working Group of the Web Accessibility Initiative is highly recommended. In particular, Getting Started: Making a Web Site Accessible.

編製 (Authoring) 工具

有很多的資訊網內容(Web content)是由編製(authoring)工具所創造。不論是藉由直接做編製決定或是限制作者(author)的選擇,這些工具常常決定了資訊網內容(Web content)是如何地實做。因此,在創造符合本「資訊網內容親和力準則」的資訊網內容(Web content)上編製工具扮演著很大的角色。同時,我們建議所有的作者熟悉本「準則」,因為這可協助有親和力的內容的創造,也因為各工具對本「準則」的支援範圍可能有所不同。

編製工具的開發者可遵守編製工具親和力準則,讓他們的工具更有本「資訊網內容親和力準則」的意識。

我們鼓勵編製 (authoring) 工具的使用者與購買者把編製工具親和力準則 (Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines) 的符合性當作一個選擇工具的考慮因素。

編按:The Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines Working Group has published Working Drafts of ATAG 2.0. The above references will need to be updated as ATAG 2.0 moves through recommendation track.

原則一: 內容必須是可察覺(perceivable)

準則 1.1 對所有非文字內容提供文字取代方案

準則 1.1 的第一階達成要件
  1. 對於所有有功能的非文字內容,例如圖片鍊結,文字取代方案 (text alternative) 指出非文字內容的目的或功能。 [I]
    如何為有功能的內容提供文字取代方案。(Informative)
  2. 對於所有表達資訊的非文字內容,文字取代方案表達同樣的資訊。[I]
    註:對於多媒體,這表示有提供一個標籤(於前項要件有說明)與一個文字記錄。
    如何提供有表達資訊的文字取代方案。(Informative)
  3. 對於目的為建立某特別感覺體驗的非文字內容,例如音樂或美術,文字取代方案指出與描述非文字內容。[I]
    如何對建立某特別感覺體驗的內容提供文字取代方案。(Informative)
  4. 不提供資訊、功能、或感覺體驗的非文字內容有標示讓助殘技術(assistive technology)可忽略它。[I]
    如何提供可被助殘技術忽略的文字取代方案。(Informative)
  5. 任何文字取代方案與其非文字內容有明確聯接(explicitly associated)。[I]
    如何明確聯接文字取代方案到非文字內容。(Informative)
  6. 對實況純語音或實況純視訊的內容,例如互聯網電臺或網路攝影機,文字取代方案描述演出的目的,或提供鏈結到取代的即時內容,例如對交通網路攝影機提供路況報導
    註:即時內容並不代表有即時字幕。
    編按:這與第一項類似,不過我們認為有需要特定對純語音或純視訊內容做說明以避免混淆。

準則 1.1 的第二階達成要件
  1. 本準則無第二階達成要件

準則 1.1 的第三階達成要件
  1. 對於多媒體,提供有語音說明與字幕的文字記錄。 [I]
    如何提供多媒體所有重要視訊資訊的描述。(Informative)

Guideline 1.1 (text-equiv) Issues

誰得以受惠於準則 1.1 (Informative)

  • People who are blind, have low vision, have cognitive disabilities or have trouble reading text for any reason can have the text read aloud to them by assistive technology.

  • 耳聾聽力有困難、或因任何原因在了解語音資訊有困難的人士可以讀 the text presentation or have it translated and presented as sign language by assistive technology.

  • 聾盲人士可以用布拉耶點字讀文字。

準則 1.1 的範例 (Informative)

  • 範例 1:用做按鈕的圖片。
    A magnifying glass icon is used to link to the search page of a Web site. A screen reader identifies the button as a link and speaks the text alternative, "Search."
  • 範例 2:a data chart.
    A bar chart compares how many widgets were sold in June, July, and August. The short label says, "Figure one - Sales in June, July and August." The longer description identifies the type of chart, provides a high-level summary of the data comparable to that available from the chart, and provides the data in a table.
  • 範例 3:a recording of a speech
    The link to an audio clip says, "Chairman's speech to the assembly." A link to a text transcript is provided immediately after the link to the audio clip.
  • 範例 4:a recording of a symphony.
    The link to an audio file says, "Beethoven's 5th Symphony performed by the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra."
  • 範例 5:an animation that illustrates how a car engine works.
    An animation shows how a car engine works. There is no audio and the animation is part of a tutorial that describes how an engine works. All that is needed is a description of the image. 取自 "How car engines work: Internal combustion"

編按:Examples to be developed: a live radio stream and a live Web camera


原則二: 介面元素必須是可操作(operable)

準則 2.2 的第一階達成要件
  1. Content is designed so that time-outs are not an essential part of interaction, or at least one of the following is true for each time-out that is a function of the content: [I]
    • 使用者可以停用 time-out,或
    • the user is allowed to adjust the time-out over a wide range which is at least ten times the length of the default setting or;
    • the user is warned before time expires, allowed to extend the time-out with a simple action (for example, "hit any key") and given at least 20 seconds to respond or;
    • the time-out is an important part of a real-time event (for example, an auction), and no alternative to the time-out is possible or;
    • the time-out is part of an activity where timing is essential (for example, competitive gaming or time-based testing) and time limits can not be extended further without invalidating the activity.

原則三: 內容與控制件必須是可理解(understandable)

原則四: 對目前與未來技術,內容必須足夠耐用(robust)

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